SCIENTIFIC NAME: Pipistrellus Kaup, 1829
COMMON NAME: Pipistrelle
SYNONYMS: Romicia Gray, 1838; Nannugo Kolenati, 1856;
Euvesperugo Alcoque, 1899 part.; Attelepharca Menu,
DESCRIPTION: Genus of the family Vespertilionidae, includes ca.
40 species. Muzzle moderately short and wide. Ears moderate, with
rounded tip. Tragus moderate long, almost stright-sided, with blunt
tip. Wings relatively narrow (more than in Hypsugo and Eptesicus,
bat distinctly less than in Nyctalus). Upper small premolar
usually not reduced, but variably intruded from tooth row. Two upper
incisors in each side, outer incisor usually not greatly reduced.
Lower molars of nyctalodont type. Pelage thick and relatively short.
Coloration varies from dark-brown to sandy pale, sometimes with
reddish tinges. Karyotype includes 34-44 chromosomes.
DISTRIBUTION: From temperate zone of Eurasia to South Africa and
Australia, also in North America.
NATURAL HISTORY: Pipistrelles inhabit variable landscapes from deserts
to temperate mixed and tropical rain forests, spread into mountain
up to the elevations of 3000 m ASL; often occur in human build-up
areas. Aerial hawking insectivores. Roosts in buildings and also
in various natural cavities; split-like shelters are preferable.
Species inhabiting temperate zone are seasonal migrants, moving
to distances up to 1600 km; hibernate in winter. Hibernate in hollow
trees and human buildings. Mating take place after the end of lactation,
with well-marked autumn rut in temperate zone, or during hibernation.
Gestation 45-60 days. Females give one to three newborns in each
litter (usually two). Lactation 1-1,5 months. Maternity colonies
include from several tens to, more rare, several hundreds of females;
males usually live separately. Births usually take place in the
beginning of summer or wet season; some tropical species give births
through the whole year. Longevity up to 16 years (usually 3-7).
Four (probably five) species occur in Russia and adjacent countries:
Common pipistrelle P. pipistrellus
Japanese pipistrelle P. abramus
Kuhl's pipistrelle P. kuhli