Russian Journal of Theriology. Main page    

Russian Journal of Theriology. Main page
Free access to the published articles
Information about online submission, Articles format, Instructions for authors etc
Instructions for reviewers
Subscription and prices
Contacts

Русскоязычный вариант сайта
Morphofunctional analysis of the cervical-thoracic region in some burrowing mammals
Gambaryan P.P., Zherebtsova O.V., Platonov V.V.
P. 13-41
The comparative analysis of such high specialized burrowers as Talpa europaea, Spalax microphthalmus, Nannospalax nehringi, Myospalax myospalax and generalized non-burrowing Rattus norvegicus was carried out to reveal their adaptive peculiarities in the skeleton and muscles structure of cervical-thoracic region. In Talpa during the pushing the soil apart with the forelimbs the drawing of head backwards between the hands is observed. It results in arched neck position, atlas being displaced on the ventral parts of the occipital condyles. At the drawing the head forward during the searching of food the role of m. longus colli is most important. For its insertion in Talpa, in contrast to that of other burrowers and Rattus, the specific ventral plates are developed not only on the sixth, but also on the fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae. The particular mobility in thoracic region in Talpa testifies that during the throwing out the soil the forelimbs are used. Spalax, Nannospalax, and Myospalax, on the contrary, throw the soil out with the head. It becomes possible at the significant consolidation of the cervical vertebrae by the sharp decreasing of their mobility up to the partial accretion. However, in comparison to Rattus and Talpa, the higher mobility in the occipital joint is observed. Moreover, the increasing of solidity of the first thorax segment and formation of the specific withers on the second–sixths (seventh) thoracic vertebrae take place. Three main groups of the muscles (extensors of occipital and elbow joints; the muscles lifting the body between the forelimbs) acting at the process of throwing the soil with the head in spalacids and Myospalax are about four–six times stronger than such in Rattus; the extensors of the occipital joint are 20 times stronger than those in Talpa.

References

  • Boker H. 1935. Einfuhrung in der vergleichenden biologischen Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. Jena: G. Fischer. Vol.1. 228 p.
  • Brovar V.Ya. 1935. [Biomechanics of the withers (in respect of the function of the spinous processes in vertebrates)] // Trudy Moskovskogo Zootekhnicheskogo Instituta. T.2. P.42-58 [in Russian].
  • Brovar V.Ya. 1940. [Analysis of the correlations between the weight of the head and the length of the spinous processes in vertebrates] // Archiv Anatomii, Gistologii i Embriologii. T.24. P.54-57 [in Russian].
  • Dobson G.E. 1882. A Monograph of the Insectivora, Systematics and Anatomy. London: P.I. John Van Voorst. 172 p.
  • Folitarek S.U. 1932. [Distribution, biology and industry of the mole in Ukraine] // Byulleten' Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody, Novaya Seriya. T.41. No.3-4. P.235-302 [in Russian].
  • Formozov A.N. 1952. [Companion of a Pathfinder]. Moskva: Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody. 360 p. [in Russian].
  • Gambaryan P.P. 1951. [The function of the spinous process of the second thoracic vertebra in rodents] // Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. T.30. No.2. P.165-171 [in Russian].
  • Gambaryan P.P. 1960. [The Adaptive Features of the Locomotor Organs in the Fossorial Mammals]. Erevan: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk Armyanskoi SSR. 195 p. [in Russian].
  • Gambaryan P.P. 1972. [Run of the Mammals]. Leningrad: Nauka. 334 p. [in Russian].
  • Gambaryan P.P. 1974. How Mammals Run. New York: Wiley. 367 p.
  • Gambaryan P.P. 1978. [The position of zokors (genus Myospalax) in the system of Rodentia] // [Morphology, Systematics and Evolution of the Animals. Abstracts of Reports]. Leningrad: Zoologicheskii Institut AN SSSR. P.51-53 [in Russian].
  • Gambaryan P.P. 1989. [Evolution of the Facial Musculature in Mammals]. Leningrad: Nauka. 152 p. [in Russian].
  • Gambaryan P.P. & Gasc J.-P. 1993. Adaptive properties of the musculoskeletal system in the mole-rat Myospalax myospalax (Mammalia, Rodentia), cinefluorographical, anatomical, and biomechanical analyses of burrowing // Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Thiere. Bd.123. Hf.4. P.363 - 401.
  • Gambaryan P.P., Gasc J.-P. & Renous S. 2002. Cinefluorografical study of the burrowing movements in the common mole, Talpa europaea (Lipotyphla, Talpidae) // Russian Journal of Theriology. Vol.1. No.2. P.91-109.
  • Gasc J.P., Jouffroy F.K., Renous S. & Blottnitz D. 1986. Morphofunctional study of the digging system of the Namib Desert golden mole (Eremitalpa granti namibensis): cinefluorographical and anatomical analysis // Journal of Zoology. London, Series A. Vol.208. No.1. P.9-35.
  • Greene E.G. 1935. Anatomy of the rat // Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series. Vol.27. P.1-370.
  • Hill J.E. 1937. Morphology of the pocket gopher mammalian genus Thomomys // University of California Publications in Zoology. Vol. 42. No.2. P.81-172.
  • Hisaw F. L. 1923. Observations on the burrowing habits of mole (Scalopus aquaticus mahrinoides) // Journal of Mammology. Vol.4. No.2. P.79-88.
  • Howell A.B. 1926. Anatomy of the Wood Rat: Comparative Anatomy of the Subgenera of the American Wood Rat (Genus Neotoma). Baltimore: American Society of Mammologists. Vol.1. 225 p.
  • Klimov A. F. 1955. [Anatomy of Domestic Animals]. Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo Sel'skokhosyaistvennoi Literatury. T.1. 576 p. [in Russian].
  • Köhl F. 1917. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Bisamratte // Sb. zool. No.1. S.24-52.
  • Kuznetsov A.N. 1999. [Structural types of limbs and evolution of running technique in tetrapods] // Zoologicheskie Issledovaniya. No.3. P.1-94 [in Russian].
  • Nikol'skii V.S. 1978. [General principles of biomechanics of the pectoral girdle and forelimb in Talpa europaea] // Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. T.57. No.7. P.750-758 [in Russian].
  • Nozdrachev A.D. 1973. [Anatomy of Cat]. Leningrad: Nauka. 247 p. [in Russian].
  • Pilipchuk O.Ya. 1993. [The axial skeleton] // Sokolov V.E. & Lavrov N.P. (eds.). [Muskrat]. Moskva: Nauka. P.120-134 [in Russian].
  • Platonov V.V. 2002. Peculiarities of the thoracic-lumbar vertebral morphology in common mole, Talpa europaea (Lipotyphla, Talpidae) in connection with its burrowing activity // Russian Journal of Theriology. Vol.1. No.2. P.111-115.
  • Reed C.A. 1951. Locomotion and appendicular anatomy in three soricoid insectivores // American Midland Naturalist. Vol.45. No.3. P.513-671.
  • Schaller O. 1992. Illustrated Veterinary Anatomical Nomenclature. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke Verlag. 614 p.
  • Sinel'nikov R. A. 1972. [Atlas of Human Anatomy]. Moskva: Meditsina. T.1. 631 p. [in Russian].
  • Skoczen S. 1958. Tunnel digging by the mole (Talpa europaea Linnaeus) // Acta Theriologica. Vol.2. No.11. P.235-249.
  • Stroganov S.U. 1948. [Systematics of moles (Talpidae)] // Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR. T. 8. No.2. P. 1-405 [in Russian].
  • Sukhanov V.B. & Manzii S.F. 1986. [Morphology and main directions of the axial skeleton specialization in Sirenia] // Sokolov V.E. (ed.). [Manatee]. Moskva: Nauka. P.77-156 [in Russian].
  • Todorowa Z. 1927. Die Enstehungen der Grabanpassungen bei Talpa europaea // Gegenbaurs Morphologische Jahrbücher. Bd.57. Hf.3. S.381-409.

Download PDF