Russian Journal of Theriology. Main page    

Russian Journal of Theriology. Main page
Free access to the published articles
Information about online submission, Articles format, Instructions for authors etc
Instructions for reviewers
Subscription and prices

Русскоязычный вариант сайта
The skull of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Jдger, 1839) (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) from Irkutsk Province, Eastern Siberia
Billia E.M.E.
P. 63-71
The famous skull discovered in the Irkutsk Province (Eastern Siberia), previously attributed to “Rhinoceros Merckii” [=Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis] both by Chersky (1874) and by Brandt (1877), preserved in the collections of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Science in St. Petersburg, is described. It represents one of the five skulls ascribed to this taxon discovered until now in Eurasia and the only one coming from the Russian territory. A brief history of the S. kirchbergensis and some notes on three other three skulls attributed to the same species are also included. Unlike the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis and other Plio-Pleistocene rhinoceroses, which abound in the Eurasian continent, S. kirchbergensis seems to be rare on this wide territory. This is one of the two records of this species from Eastern Siberia, and one of the very few from Russia.

DOI: 10.15298/rusjtheriol.5.2.03


  • Alekseeva E.V. 1980. [Pleistocene Mammals of South-East of Western Siberia. Carnivores, Proboscidians, Ungulates]. Moskva: Nauka. 187 p. [in Russian].
  • Aliev S.D. 1969. [The Fauna of the Paleolithic Site of Azych]. Baku: Izdatel'stvo AN Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR. 30 p. [in Russian].
  • Azzaroli A. 1962a. Rinoceronti pliocenici del Valdarno Inferiore // Palaeontographia Italica. Vol.57. (Nuova Serie, Vol.27). P.11-20.
  • Azzaroli A. 1962b. Validità della specie Rhinoceros hemitoechus Falconer //. Palaeontographia Italica. Vol.57. (Nuova Serie, Vol.27). P.21-34.
  • Bar-Yossef O. & Chernov E. 1972. On the Palaeo-Ecological History of the Site of 'Ubeidiya. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. 35 p.
  • Belyaeva E.I. 1935. [Some data on the Quaternary mammals from the area of the lower Volga River based on the materials in the Pugachev city Museum] // Trudy Komissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda. No.4. Vyp.2. P.303-308 [in Russian with German summary].
  • Belyaeva E.I. 1939. [On fossil rhinoceros remains from the environs of Rybinsk city] // Trudy Komissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda. No.5. P. 69-90 [in Russian].
  • Belyaeva E.I. 1940. [New finds of Merck's rhinoceros remains in the territory of the Soviet Union] // Priroda. No.8. P.82 [in Russian].
  • Bernsen J.J.A. 1927. The geology of the Tegelian Clay and its fossil remains of Rhinoceros. Thesis University Amsterdam. 108 p.
  • Billia E.M.E. 2005a. Records of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Jaeger, 1839) (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) from South-East of Western Siberia: a rareness of a species // Ecosystems of Mongolia and Frontier Areas of Adjacent Countries: Natural Resources, Biodiversity and Ecological Prospects. Proceedings of the International Conference. Ulaanbaatar. 2005. P.57-58.
  • Billia E.M.E. 2005b. Odontological distinguishing characters of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Jaeger, 1839) (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) with a revision of the species in Italy // [Evolution of Life on the Earth. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium]. Tomsk: Izdatel'stvo Tomskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta. P.321-325.
  • Billia E.M.E. in press a. First records of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Jäger, 1839) (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) from the Kuznetsk Basin (Kemerovo region, Kuzbass area, South-East of Western Siberia) // Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana.
  • Billia E.M.E. in press b. Revision of the fossil odontological material attributed to Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Jäger, 1839) (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) preserved in the museum collections of the Russian Federation // Stratigraphy, Palaeontology, and Palaeoenvironment of Pliocene-Pleistocene of Transbaikalia and Interregional Correlations. Proceedings of INQUA International Symposium. Ulan-Ude.
  • Billia E.M.E. in press c. Catalogue of the Odonto-osteological Material Attributed to Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Jaeger, 1839) (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) Preserved in the Museum Collections of the Russian Federation (with a Bibliographic list on the Rhinocerotidae Family with over than 1200 References). NATO-CNR Outreach Fellowships Research Thesis. 149 p.
  • Billia E.M.E. & Petronio C. in press. Records of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Jäger, 1839) (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) from Italy // Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana.
  • BilliaE.M.E. & Shpansky A.V. 2005. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Jäger, 1839) (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) from the Middle Pleistocene levels of the Ob' River at Krasny Yar (Tomsk region, Western Siberia) // Deinsea. Vol.11. P.75-82.
  • Borsuk-Bialyńicka M. & Jakubowski G. 1972. The skull of Dicerorhinus mercki (Jäger) from Warsaw // Prace Muzeum Ziemi. Vol.20. P.187-199.
  • Brandt J.F. 1877. Versuch einer Monographie der Tichorhinen Nashörner nebst Bemerkungen über Rhinoceros leptorhinus Cuvier // Zapiski Imperatorskoi Akademii Naur, Seriya 7. T.24. No.4. P. 1-135.
  • Chersky I.D. 1874. Opisanie cherepa nosoroga, razlichnago ot' Rhinoceros tichorhinus [Description of a rhinoceros skull different from Rhinoceros tichorhinus] // Zapiski Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk, Seriya 5. Vol.25. No.2. P.65-75 [in Russian].
  • Czyżewska T. 1962. Uzebienie górnej szczeki Dicerorhinus mercki (Jager) ze Szczęśliwic kolo Warszawy // Acta Paleontologica Polonica. Vol.7. No.1-2. P.223-234.
  • David A.I. 1980. [Theriofauna of the Pleistocene of Moldavia]. Kishinev: Shtiinza. 186 p. [in Russian].
  • Dmitrieva E.L. & Nesmeyanov S.A. 1982. [Mammals and stratigraphy of continental Tertiary deposits of south-east of Middle Asia] // Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta. T.193. P.1-140 [in Russian].
  • Dubrovo I.A. 1957. [On remains of Parelephas wuesti (M. Pavl.) and Rhinoceros mercki Jaeger from Jakutiya] // Byulleten' Komissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda. No.21. P.97-104 [in Russian].
  • Flerov K.K., Trofimov B.A. & Yanoskaya N.M. 1955. [History of mammal fauna in the Quaternary Period]. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo MGU. 39 p. [in Russian].
  • Foronova I.V. 2001. [Quaternary Mammals of South-East of Western Siberia (Kuznetsk Basin). Phylogeny, Biostratigraphy, and Paleoecology]. Novosibirsk: Izdatel'stvo SO RAN. 243 p. [in Russian].
  • Fortelius M., Mazza P. & Sala B. 1993. Stephanorinus (Mammalian, Rhinocerontidae) of the western European Pleistocene, with a revision of S. etruscus (Falconer, 1868) // Palaeontographia Italica. Vol.80. P.63-155.
  • Freudenberg W. 1914. Die Säugetiere des altern Quartärs von Mitteleuropa mit besonderes Berücksichtigung der Faunen von Hundsheim und Deutsch-Altenburg in Niederösterreich nebst Bemerkungen über verwandte Formen anderer Fundorte // Geologische und Paläontologische Abhandlungen, Neue Folge. Bd.12. Hf.4-5. S.455-671.
  • Fu Z. 2002. [Quaternary mammal fauna of Dunbey Pleistocene and its specificity] // Arkheologya, Etnografiya i Antropologiya Evrazii. T.1. No.9. P.6-15 [in Russian].
  • Gorjanovich-Kramberger D. 1913. Fossilni rinocerotidi Hrvatske i Slavonije, s osobitim obzirom na Rhinoceros mercki iz Krapine (De rhinocerotidibus fossilibus Croatie et Slavoniae, praecipua ratione habita Rhinocerotis mercki var. Krapinensis mihi). Djela Jugoslavica Akademia. Vol.22. No.8. P.1-96.
  • Gromova V.I. 1932. [New materials on Quaternary fauna of the Volga River region and history of mammals of the Eastern Europe in general] // Trudy Komissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda. No.2. P.69-184 [in Russian].
  • Gromova V.I. 1935. [On remains of Merck's rhinoceros (Rhinoceros mercki Jaeg.) from lower Volga River region] // Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR. T.4. P.91-131 [in Russian with German abstract].
  • Guérin C. 1980. Les Rhinocéros (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) du Miocène terminal au Pléistocène supérieur en Europe occidentale. Comparaison avec les espèces actuelles. Thèse Doctorat d'Etat et Sciences, Universite Lyon I // Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de Lyon. T.79. No.1-3. P.1-1185.
  • Heissig K. 1981. Probleme bei der cladistichen Analyse einer Gruppe mit wenigen eindeutigen Apomorphien: Rhinocerotidae // Paläontologische Zeitschrift. Bd.55. Hf.1. S.117-123.
  • Hooijer D.A. 1961. The fossil vertebrates of Ksar' Akil, a Palaeolithic rock shelter in the Lebanon // Zoologische Verhandelingen. No.49. P.3-68.
  • Jaeger G.F. 1835-1839. Über die fossilen Säugetiere welche in Würtemberg in verschiedenen Formationen aufgefunden worden sind, nebst geognotischen Bemerkungen über diese Formationen. Stuttgart: C. Erhard verlag.
  • Kahlke H.-D. 1977. Die Rhinocerotiden-Reste aus den Travertinen von Taubach bei Weimar // Quartärpaläontologie. Bd.2. S.305-359.
  • Kahlke H.-D. 1978. Die Rhinocerotiden-Reste aus den Travertinen von Burgtonna in Thüringen // Quartärpaläontologie. Bd.3. S.129-135.
  • Kahlke H.-D. 1984. Die Rhinocerotiden-Reste aus den Travertinen von Weimar (Travertine im Stadtgebiet) // Quartärpaläontologie. Bd.5. S.381-387.
  • Khisarova G.D. 1963. [Fossil bones of mammals from Koshkurgan gryphon (Southern Kazakhstan)] // Materialy po istorii fauny i flory Kazakhstana. No.4. P.42-50 [in Russian].
  • Kozhamkulova B.S. 1981. [Late Cenozoic Ungulates of Kazakhstan]. Alma-Ata: Izdatel'stvo AN Kazakhskoi SSR. 144 p. [in Russian].
  • Kozhamkulova B.S. & Kostenko N.N. 1984. [Extinct animals of Kazakhstan (Paleogeography of the Late Cenozoic)]. Alma-Ata: Izdatel'stvo AN Kazakhskoi SSR. 103 p. [in Russian].
  • Kretzoi M. 1942. Präokkupierte und durch ältere zu ersetzende Säugetiernamen // Földtani Közlöny. Vol.72. No.4-12. P.345-349.
  • Kurtén B. 1968. Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 317 p.
  • Lartet E. 1867. Notes sur deux têtes de Carnassiers fossiles (Ursus et Felis) et sur quelques débris de Rhinocéros provenant des découvertes faites par M. Bourguignat dans les cavernes du Midi de la France // Annales de Sciences Naturales (Zoologie). T.5. No.8. P.157-194.
  • Lee Y.-J. 2001. Bone remains from Sae-kul and Cheonyo-kul of the Turubong Cave Complex in Korea // Asia and the Middle Pleistocene in Global Perspective. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. Honolulu: Honolulu State University Publishing House. Vol.3. P.14-17.
  • Loose H.K. 1975. Pleistocene Rhinocerotidae of Western Europe with Reference to the Recent two-horned species of Africa and S.E. Asia // Scripta Geologica. No.33. P.1-59.
  • Mayer G. 1971. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Badischen Landessammlungen für Naturkunde in Karlsruhe. Der Schädel des Dicerorhinus mercki (kirchbergensis) (Jäger) var. Brachycephalus Schroeder von Daxlanden und seine Geschichte // Beiträge zur naturkunde Forschungsberichte Südwestfalen. Bd.30. Hf.2. S.157-163.
  • Meyer H.v. 1863-1864. Die diluvianen Rhinoceros-Arten // Palaeontographica. Bd.11. S.233-283.
  • Salov I.N. 1957. [Finds of fossil Quaternary fauna in the Smolensk region] // Smolenskii Oblastnoi Kraevedcheskii Muzei. T.2. P.311-333 [in Russian].
  • Schroeder H. 1903. Die Wirbelthier-Fauna des Mosbacher Sandes, 1. Gattung Rhinoceros // Abhandlungen der Königliche Preußischen geologische Landesanst, Neue Folge. Bd.18. S.1-143.
  • Schroeder H. 1905. Rhinoceros mercki Jäger von Heggen im Sauerlande // Jahrbuch der Königliche Preußischen geologische Landesanst. Bd.26. Hf.2. S.212-239.
  • Schroeder H. 1930. Über Rhinoceros mercki und seine nord- und mitteldeutschen Fundstellen // Abhandlungen der Preußischen geologische Landesanst, Neue Folge. Bd.124. S.1-114.
  • Staesche K. 1941. Nashörner der Gattung Dicerorhinus aus dem Diluvium Württembergs // Abhandlungen der Preußischen Geologischen Landesanstalt. Hf.200. S.1-148.
  • Strizheva I.M. 1991. [Osteological remains of large mammals from the Samara Luka district] // Samarskaya Luka. T.2. P.197-205 [in Russian].
  • Teilhard de Chardin P. & Pei W.C. 1941. The fossil Mammals of locality 13 in Choukoutien // Palaeontologia Sinica, Series C. Vol.11. No.4. P.1-105.
  • Tleuberdina P.A., Kozhamkulova B.S. & Kondratenko G.S. 1990. [Catalogue of the Cenozoic Mammals of Kazakhstan]. Alma-Ata: Izdatel'stvo AN Kazakhskoi SSR/ 135 p. [in Russian].
  • Toula F. 1907. Rhinoceros mercki Jäger in Österreich // Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Königliche geologische Reichsanstalt. Bd.57. Hf.3. S.445-454.
  • Wang T. 1961. The occurrence of Stegodon and Merck's rhinoceros near Taiyuan, Shansi // Vertebrata PalAsiatica. Vol.6. No.2. P.160-162.
  • West R.G., Lambert C.A. & Sparks B.W. 1964. Interglacial deposits at Ilford (Essex) // Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B. No.738, 247 P.185-212, London.
  • Woodward H.M. 1874. On the remains of Rhinoceros leptorhinus Owen (R. hemitoechus Falc.) in the collection of Sir Antonio Brady, FGS, from the Pleistocene Deposits of the Valley of the Thames at Ilford (Essex) // Geological Magazine. Vol.11. P.398-403.
  • Wüst E. 1901. Untersuchungen ueber das Pliozaen und das aelteste Pleistozaen Thueringens, noerdlich vom Thueringerwalde und westlich von der Saale // Abhandlungen der. Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. Bd.23. S.21-368.
  • Wüst E. 1909. Das Vorkommen von Rhinoceros merckii Jäger in den oberen Travertinen von Ehringsdorf bei Weimar und seine Bedeutung für die Beurteilung der Klimaschwankungen das Eiszeitalters // Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie. Jg.1909. S.23-25.
  • Wüst E. 1922. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der diluvianen Nashörner Europas // Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie. Bd.20. S.641-656; Bd.21. S.680-688.
  • Xu X. 1986. Dicerorhinus kirchbergensis (Jäger, 1839) from the late Middle Pleistocene mammalian fauna of Anping (Liaoning) // Vertebrata PalAsiatica. Vol.24. No.3. P.229-241.

Download PDF