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Shoulder girdle and forelimb myology of extant Monotremata
Gambaryan P.P., Kuznetsov A.N., Panyutina A.A., Gerasimov S.V.
P. 1-56
For the first time, the comparative myological analysis of the forelimbs of all living genera of Monotremata is performed. Based on thorough dissection, the degree of morphological primitivity is established of Tachyglossidae relative to Ornithorhynchus, and of monotremes as a whole relative to therians. It appeared that the composition of forelimb muscles in Tachyglossidae is more primitive above the elbow, while that in Ornithorhynchus is more primitive below the elbow. Some muscles, e.g. the m. serratus ventralis cervicis and the m. flexor digitorum profundus, are built in monotremes almost as primitive as in amphibians. In general, the forelimb of monotremes is confirmed to be a good model of pre-mammalian locomotorium.

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