Russian Journal of Theriology. Main page    

Russian Journal of Theriology. Главная страница
Доступ к статьям
Электронная подача статей, правила для авторов и тп
Вход для рецензентов
Здесь можно подписаться на новостную рассылку RJT
Контактная информация

English version

Circadian activity rhythms of dwarf hamsters (Phodopus spp.) under laboratory and semi-natural conditions
Weinert D., Schöttner K., Surov A.V., Fritzsche P., Feoktistova N.Yu., Ushakova M.V., Ryurikov G.B.
P. 47-58
The hamsters of the genus Phodopus (P. campbelli, P. sungorus, P. roborovskii) inhabit different ecosystems facing them with different environmental challenges. This should have behavioural and physiological consequences, manifested genetically. Therefore, the present paper compares the daily activity rhythm of the three Phodopus species under various conditions, from highly standardized laboratory to semi-natural ones. Motor activity was recorded by the mean of passive infrared sensors (PIR), running wheels (RW) and ring-shaped sensors (RSS) placed on the burrow entrances.
Under standardized laboratory conditions with artificial light-dark cycles (L:D=14:10h or 18:06h), all hamsters were active almost exclusively during the dark time. The amount of general activity (PIR method) per day was not different between males and females or between species. The onset of activity (RSS) was significantly later in P. campbelli than in the two other species, the activity offset was earliest in P. roborovskii. The latter had also the shortest duration of dark-time activity. Running wheels were used mainly during the dark time (on average 97%). P. sungorus did run significantly more than the other two species. On average they realized 9000 revolutions per day (ca. 3.5 km).
The rhythm stability was lowest in P. sungorus. In some hamsters of this species, the activity onset was delayed by several hours, and the activity period was strongly compressed. Also, a free-running rhythm despite the presences of a light-dark cycle or arrhythmicity was observed in those animals. Differences between the species were also found during the last weeks of life. Whereas P. campbelli and P. roborovskii revealed clear activity rhythms until the last decade, in P. sungorus the activity rhythm disappeared from the last 100 days of life.
First studies under semi-natural conditions were performed at the Biological Station of the A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution in Tchernogolovka. These included experiments in a laboratory though with natural lighting and temperature conditions and in outdoor enclosures. In one of them (75 m2) artificial nest boxes were provided, in the other two (400 m2 each) the animals could dig their own burrows. The observed activity patterns are similar to those obtained under constant, standardized conditions. Moreover, the animals did clearly respond to the changing photoperiod.
The activity patterns of each species described in the present paper are rather similar under semi-natural and artificial environmental conditions. This can be taken as evidence that the obtained species-specific patterns have a genetic basis and are not caused by the different environmental conditions.

Литература

  • Bae H.H., Larkin J.E. & Zucker I. 2003. Juvenile Siberian hamsters display torpor and modified locomotor activity and body temperature rhythms in response to reduced food availability // Physiological & Biochemical Zoology. Vol.76. P.858-867.
  • Barakat M.T., O'Hara B.F., Cao V.H., Heller H.C. & Ruby N.F. 2005. Light induces c-fos and per1 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of arrhythmic hamsters // American Journal of Physiology Regul. Integr. Comp Physiol. Vol.289. P.R1381-R1386.
  • Cohen R. & Kronfeld-Schor N. 2006. Individual variability and photic entrainment of circadian rhythms in golden spiny mice // Physiology & Behavior. Vol.87. P.563-574.
  • Feoktistova N.Yu. & Meshcherskii I.G. 2003. [Function of chemical signals in interspecific relationships of sympatric and allopatric hamster species of the genus Phodopus (Rodentia: Cricetinae)] // Doklady Akademii Nauk. Vol.389. P.846-849 [in Russian].
  • Flint WE. 1966. Die Zwerghamster der paläarktischen Fauna. Wittenberg: A. Ziemsen Verlag. 97 p.
  • Hamann U. 1987. Zu Aktivität und Verhalten von drei Taxa der Zwerghamster der Gattung Phodopus Miller, 1910 // Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. Vol.52. P.65-76.
  • Hoffmann K. & Illnerova H. 1986. Photoperiodic effects in the Djungarian hamster. Rate of testicular regression and extension of pineal melatonin pattern depend on the way of change from long to short photoperiods // Neuroendocrinology. Vol.43. P.317-321.
  • Hume J. M. & Wynne-Edwards K.E. 2006. Paternal responsiveness in biparental dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) does not require estradiol // Hormones and Behavior. Vol.49. P.538-544.
  • Jefimow M. 2007. Effects of summer- and winter-like acclimation on the thermoregulatory behavior of fed and fasted desert hamsters, Phodopus roborovski i// Journal of Thermal Biology. Vol.32. P.212-219.
  • Larkin J. E., Freeman D.A. & Zucker I. 2001. Low ambient temperature accelerates short-day responses in Siberian hamsters by altering responsiveness to melatonin // Journal of Biological Rhythms. Vol.16. P.76-86.
  • Mrosovsky N., Salmon P.A. &Vrang N. 1998. Revolutionary science: an improved running wheel for hamsters // Chronobiology International. Vol.15. P.147-158.
  • Puchalski W. & Lynch G.R. 1988. Characterization of circadian function in Djungarian hamsters insensitive to short day photoperiod // Journal of Comparative Physiology [A]. Vol.162. P.309-316.
  • Puchalski W., Saarela S. & Lynch G.R. 1996. Reentrainment of motor activity and spontaneous neuronal activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of Djungarian hamsters // Journal of Biological Rhythms. Vol.11. P.302-310.
  • Ruby N. F., Barakat M.T. & Heller H.C. 2004. Phenotypic differences in reentrainment behavior and sensitivity to nighttime light pulses in siberian hamsters // Journal of Biological Rhythms. Vol.19. P.530-541.
  • Ruby N. F., Joshi N. & Heller H.C. 1998. Phase shift magnitude and direction determine whether Siberian hamsters reentrain to the photocycle // Journal of Biological Rhythms. Vol.13. P.506-517.
  • Ruf T., Stieglitz, A., Steinlechner S., Blank J.L. & Heldmaier G. 1993. Cold exposure and food restriction facilitate physiological responses to short photoperiod in Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) // Journal of Experimental Zoology. Vol.267. P.104-112.
  • Rusak B. 1989. The mammalian circadian system: models and physiology // Journal of Biological Rhythms. Vol.4. P.121-134.
  • Steinlechner S., Stieglitz A. & Ruf T. 2002. Djungarian hamsters: a species with a labile circadian pacemaker? Arrhythmicity under a light-dark cycle induced by short light pulses // Journal of Biological Rhythms. Vol.17. P.248-258.
  • Surov A. V. & Feoktistova N.Yu. 2006. [Biology of dwarf hamsters and using them in laboratory studies] // Biomedicina. Vol.2. P.52-70 [in Russian].
  • Timonin M. E. & Wynne-Edwards K.E. 2006. Neither reduced photoperiod, nor female-related social cues, nor increased maternal thermal stress result in a paternally responsive Phodopus sungorus male // Physiology & Behavior. Vol.88. P.309-316.
  • Weinert D. 2005. The temporal order of mammals. Evidence for multiple central and peripheral control mechanisms and for endogenous and exogenous components: some implications for research on aging // Biological Rhythm Research. Vol.36. P.293-308.
  • Weinert H., Weinert D., Schurov I., Maywood E.S. & Hastings M.H. 2001. Impaired expression of the mPer2 circadian clock gene in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of aging mice // Chronobiology International. Vol.18. P.559-565.
  • Weinert H., Weinert D. & Waterhouse J. 2002. The circadian activity and body temperature rhythms of mice during their last days of life // Biological Rhythm Research. Vol.33. P.199-212.
  • Wollnik F., Breit A. & Reinke D. 1991. Seasonal change in the temporal organization of wheel-running activity of the European hamster, Cricetus cricetus // Naturwissenschaften. Vol.78. P.419-422.
  • Wynne-Edwards K. E. 1998. Evolution of parental care in Phodopus: Conflict between adaptations for survival and adaptations for rapid reproduction // American Zoologist. Vol.38. P.238-250.
  • Wynne-Edwards K. E., Surov A.V. & Telitzina A.Y. 1999. Differences in endogenous activity within the genus Phodopus // Journal of Mammalogy. Vol.80. P.855-865.

Скачать PDF