SCIENTIFIC NAME: Murina Gray, 1842
COMMON NAMES: Tube-nosed bats, tube-nosed insectivorous bats
SYNONYMS: Ocypetes Lesson, 1842 non Risso, 1826 non Wagler,
1829 part.; Harpiola Thomas, 1915.
DIMENSIONS: Body mass 3-13 g, head and body length 33-60 mm, tail
length 30-42 mm, forearm length 28-45 mm, wingspan 19-32 cm.
DESCRIPTION: Genus from vespertilionid family, separated into subfamily
Murininae. Includes ca. 14 species. Muzzle of moderate length, with
characteristic tubular nostrils, which tips are pointed anterolaterally.
Ears somewhat funnel-shape, broadly rounded, with elongated sharply
pointed tragi. Wings very broad, with elongated thumb. Dentition
massive. Small upper premolar similar in shape to posterior premolar,
eventually nearly approaching it in size. Two pairs of upper incisors;
outer incisor large, with well pronounced supplementary cusps. Pelage
thick and wooly, almost completely covering the upper surface of
interfemoral membrane and hind limbs up to the toes. Coloration
varies from pale grey and light brown to red-brown; underparts usually
paler than back. Karyotype includes 44 chromosomes.
DISTRIBUTION: From Southern Siberia and Russian Far East to India,
Philippine and Sunda Islands, New Guinea and north-east of Australia.
NATURAL HISTORY: Species of this genus inhabit moist forests, from
mixed boreal to tropical rain. Natural history poorly investigated.
Roosts situated in various cavities in trees and rocks, tree canopies.
Partial ground gleaners, during foraging may use maneuverable relatively
slow fight and also quadrupedal ground locomotion. Live solitary
or in small groups (rarely can aggregate into wintering colonies
of several hundreds). Females give one or two newborns in each litter.
Resident species, in the north of distribution area can hibernate.
Two species occur in Russia and neighboring countries:
Greater (or Siberian) tube-nosed
bat M. leucogaster
Ussurian tube-nosed bat