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SCIENTIFIC NAME: Myotis Kaup, 1829
COMMON NAMES: Common bats, mouse-eared bats, little brown bats, myotis.
SYNONYMS: Nystactes Kaup, 1829; Leuconoe Boie, 1830; Capaccinus Bonaparte, 1841; Selysius Bonaparte, 1841; Trilatitus Gray, 1842 part. = Tralatitius Gray, 1866; Brachyotus Kolenati, 1856 non Gould, 1837; Isotus Kolenati, 1856; Pternopterus Peters, 1867; Aeorestes Fitzinger, 1870; Comastes Fitzinger, 1870; Exochirus Fitzinger, 1870; Euvespertilio Acloque, 1899 part.; Chrysopteron Jentink, 1910; Paramyotis Bianchi, 1916; Dichromyotis Bianchi, 1917; Megapipistrellus Bianchi, 1917; Rickettia Bianchi, 1917; Anamygdon Troughton, 1929; Alobus*.
DIMENSIONS: Body mass 2,5-45 g, head and body length 35-100 mm, tail length 28-65 mm, forearm 28- 70 mm, wingspan 23-45 cm; females usually slightly larger than males.
DESCRIPTION: Belongs to the vespertilionid family, includes ca. 100 species, which are devided into 3-9 subgenera. Muzzle from moderate length to long. Ears are very variable in length, tragus relatively long and lancet-like in shape. Usually two pairs of small premolars in each upper/lower jaw; they are variably reduced and in most of species are not indruded from the toothrow. Two pairs of inscisors in upper jaw and three pairs in the lower jaw. Fur usually dense and long, its color on back is commonly brown or greyish-brown, but in some species varies from almost black to sandy-pale and bright rufous. Underparts usually paler than upperparts. Hairs are often dichromatic or trichromatic. The diploid number of chromosomes is 44.
DISTRIBUTION: All over the world, excluding Arctic and Antarctic and some oceanic islands.
NATURAL HISTORY: Mouse-eared bats inhabit variable landscapes from deserts to boreal coniferous and tropical rain forests, spread in mountains to elevations of 3000 m ASL. Mainly insectivorous species, among which there are aerial hawkers as well as ground, leaf and water gleaners. Some of the latter also feed on aquatic invertebrates and small fish. Roosts in caves, rock crevices, hollow trees and human buildings. Most of species are residents, substantial seasonal migrations not known. Forms of temperate zone have winter hibernation, which often carried out in wintering colonies of several hundreds of individuals, situated in caves or deep rock crevices. Mating take place after the end of lactation or in wintering colonies. Gestation ca. 50- 70 days. Females usually give only one newborn in litter (with very rare exceptions). Lactation 1-1,5 months. In breading season females aggregate into nursering colonies, which may consist of several hundreds or even thousands of individuals in cave-dwelling species, but usually no more than 30 adult animals. Males live in this period separately or, in part, together with females. Birth take place usually in the beginning of summer or wet season; some tropical species may give births three time per year. Maximum recorded longevity is up to 38 years (usually ca. 6-7).

About seventeen species occur in Russia and neighboring countries:
Greater (or common) mouse-eared bat — M. myotis
Lesser mouse-eared bat — M. blythi
Bechstein's bat — M. bechsteini
Natterer's bat — M. nattereri
Arax bat — M. schaubi
Amur bat — M. bombinus
Geoffroy's (or notch-eared) bat — M. emarginatus
Bucharian bat — M. buchariensis
Long-tailed bat — M. frater
Brant's bat — M. brandtii
Ikonnikow's bat — M. ikonnikovi
Whiskered bat — M. mystacinus
Daubenton's bat — M. daubentonii
Eastern water bat — M. petax
Long-fingered bat — M. capaccini
Eastern long-fingered bat — M. macrodactylus
Pond bat — M. dasycneme