SCIENTIFIC NAME: Myotis Kaup, 1829
COMMON NAMES: Common bats, mouse-eared bats, little brown bats,
SYNONYMS: Nystactes Kaup, 1829; Leuconoe Boie, 1830;
Capaccinus Bonaparte, 1841; Selysius Bonaparte, 1841;
Trilatitus Gray, 1842 part. = Tralatitius Gray, 1866;
Brachyotus Kolenati, 1856 non Gould, 1837; Isotus Kolenati,
1856; Pternopterus Peters, 1867; Aeorestes Fitzinger,
1870; Comastes Fitzinger, 1870; Exochirus Fitzinger,
1870; Euvespertilio Acloque, 1899 part.; Chrysopteron
Jentink, 1910; Paramyotis Bianchi, 1916; Dichromyotis
Bianchi, 1917; Megapipistrellus Bianchi, 1917; Rickettia
Bianchi, 1917; Anamygdon Troughton, 1929; Alobus*.
DIMENSIONS: Body mass 2,5-45 g, head and body length 35-100 mm,
tail length 28-65 mm, forearm 28- 70 mm, wingspan 23-45 cm; females
usually slightly larger than males.
DESCRIPTION: Belongs to the vespertilionid family, includes ca.
100 species, which are devided into 3-9 subgenera. Muzzle from
moderate length to long. Ears are very variable in length, tragus
relatively long and lancet-like in shape. Usually two pairs of small
premolars in each upper/lower jaw; they are variably reduced and
in most of species are not indruded from the toothrow. Two pairs
of inscisors in upper jaw and three pairs in the lower jaw. Fur
usually dense and long, its color on back is commonly brown or greyish-brown,
but in some species varies from almost black to sandy-pale and bright
rufous. Underparts usually paler than upperparts. Hairs are often
dichromatic or trichromatic. The diploid number of chromosomes is
DISTRIBUTION: All over the world, excluding Arctic and Antarctic
and some oceanic islands.
NATURAL HISTORY: Mouse-eared bats inhabit variable landscapes from
deserts to boreal coniferous and tropical rain forests, spread in
mountains to elevations of 3000 m ASL. Mainly insectivorous species,
among which there are aerial hawkers as well as ground, leaf and
water gleaners. Some of the latter also feed on aquatic invertebrates
and small fish. Roosts in caves, rock crevices, hollow trees and
human buildings. Most of species are residents, substantial seasonal
migrations not known. Forms of temperate zone have winter hibernation,
which often carried out in wintering colonies of several hundreds
of individuals, situated in caves or deep rock crevices. Mating
take place after the end of lactation or in wintering colonies.
Gestation ca. 50- 70 days. Females usually give only one newborn
in litter (with very rare exceptions). Lactation 1-1,5 months. In
breading season females aggregate into nursering colonies, which
may consist of several hundreds or even thousands of individuals
in cave-dwelling species, but usually no more than 30 adult animals.
Males live in this period separately or, in part, together with
females. Birth take place usually in the beginning of summer or
wet season; some tropical species may give births three time per
year. Maximum recorded longevity is up to 38 years (usually ca.
About seventeen species occur in Russia and neighboring countries:
Greater (or common) mouse-eared bat M. myotis
Lesser mouse-eared bat M. blythi
Natterer's bat M. nattereri
Arax bat M. schaubi
Amur bat M. bombinus
Geoffroy's (or notch-eared) bat M. emarginatus
Bucharian bat M. buchariensis
Long-tailed bat M. frater
Brant's bat M. brandtii
Whiskered bat M. mystacinus
Eastern water bat M.
Long-fingered bat M. capaccini
Eastern long-fingered bat M. macrodactylus
Pond bat M. dasycneme